Malcolm X (born Malcolm Little; May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965), also known as El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz, was an African American Muslim minister, public speaker, and human rights activist. To his admirers, he was a courageous advocate for the rights of African Americans, a man who indicted white America in the harshest terms for its crimes against black Americans. His detractors accused him of preaching racism and violence. He has been described as one of the greatest and most influential African Americans in history.
Malcolm X was born in Omaha, Nebraska. By the time he was 13, his father had died and his mother had been committed to a mental hospital. After living in a series of foster homes, Malcolm X became involved in the criminal underworld in Boston and New York. In 1945, Malcolm X was sentenced to eight to ten years in prison.
While in prison, Malcolm X became a member of the Nation of Islam. After his parole in 1952, he became one of the Nation's leaders and chief spokesmen. For nearly a dozen years, he was the public face of the Nation of Islam. Tension between Malcolm X and Elijah Muhammad, head of the Nation of Islam, led to his departure from the organization in March 1964.
After leaving the Nation of Islam, Malcolm X made the pilgrimage, the Hajj, to Mecca and became a Sunni Muslim. He traveled extensively throughout Africa and the Middle East. He founded Muslim Mosque, Inc., a religious organization, and the secular, black nationalist Organization of Afro-American Unity. Less than a year after he left the Nation of Islam, Malcolm X was assassinated while giving a speech in New York.
Malcolm X: A Research Site
Malcolm X on Youtube
Malcolm X: Oxford Union Debate
Malcolm X - Post Mecca Pilgrimage
The future belongs to those who prepare for it today.
Without education, you are not going anywhere in this world.
You're not to be so blind with patriotism that you can't face reality. Wrong is wrong, no matter who does it or says it.
I don't even call it violence when it's in self defense; I call it intelligence.
Be peaceful, be courteous, obey the law, respect everyone; but if someone puts his hand on you, send him to the cemetery.
Nobody can give you freedom. Nobody can give you equality or justice or anything. If you're a man, you take it.
Power never takes a back step - only in the face of more power.
Usually when people are sad, they don't do anything. They just cry over their condition. But when they get angry, they bring about a change.
The Autobiography of Malcolm X As Told to Alex Haley by Malcolm X
Malcolm X Speaks: Selected Speeches and Statements by George Breitman
Malcolm X: By Any Means Necessary by Walter Dean Myers
Malcolm X: A Graphic Biography by Andrew Helfer (Editor), Randy DuBurke (Illustrator)
Malcolm X (Two-Disc Special Edition) (1992)-DVD